“Tumor-associated macrophages” (TAMs) form a significant cell population in malignant tumors and contribute to tumor growth, metastasis, and neovascularization. Gliomas are characterized by extensive neo-angiogenesis, and knowledge of the role of TAMs in neovascularization is important for future anti-angiogenic therapies. The phenotypes and functions of TAMs are heterogeneous and more complex than a classification into M1 and M2 inflammation response types would suggest. In this review, we provide an update on the current knowledge of the ontogeny of TAMs, focusing on diffuse gliomas. The role of TAMs in the regulation of the different processes in tumor angiogenesis is highlighted and the most recently discovered mechanisms by which TAMs mediate resistance against current antivascular therapies are mentioned. Novel compounds tested in clinical trials are discussed and brought in relation to different TAM-related angiogenesis pathways. In addition, potential therapeutic targets used to intervene in TAM-regulated tumor angiogenesis are summarized.
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