Catalyst function is tightly controlled in biology by means of compartmentalization and positional assembly. Inspired by these innate strategies researchers have developed self-assembled structures that mimic natural control over catalytic activity by employing polymer-, lipid-, DNA-, peptide- and protein-based systems. Here, recent developments in self-assembled peptide- and protein-based nanoreactors will be discussed. This review will cover nanoreactors that are generated by either positional control of catalysts on fibrous supramolecular structures or confinement of catalysts inside protein nanocages. The focus will be on the self-assembly mechanisms that are involved in the formation of these catalytic systems.
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