The high prevalence of chronic kidney disease leads to an increased need for renal replacement therapies. While there are simply not enough donor organs available for transplantation, there is a need to seek other therapeutic avenues as current dialysis modalities are insufficient. The field of regenerative medicine and whole organ engineering is emerging, and researchers are looking for innovative ways to create (part of) a functional new organ. To biofabricate a kidney or its functional units, it is necessary to understand and learn from physiology to be able to mimic the specific tissue properties. Herein is provided an overview of the knowledge on tubular and vascular basement membranes’ biochemical components and biophysical properties, and the major differences between the two basement membranes are highlighted. Furthermore, an overview of current trends in membrane technology for developing renal replacement therapies and to stimulate kidney regeneration is provided.
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