The endogenous capacity of the kidney to repair is limited, and generation of new nephrons after injury for adequate func-
tion recovery remains a need. Discovery of factors that promote the endogenous regenerative capacity of the injured kidney
or generation of transplantable kidney tissue represent promising therapeutic strategies. While several encouraging results
are obtained after administration of stem or progenitor cells, stem cell secretome, or extracellular vesicles in experimental
kidney injury models, very little data exist in the clinical setting to make conclusions about their efficacy. In this review, we
provide an overview of the cutting-edge knowledge on kidney regeneration, including pre-clinical methodologies used to
elucidate regenerative pathways and describe the perspectives of regenerative medicine for kidney patients.
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