Postbiotics and Kidney Disease

Chiara Favero, Laura Giordano, Silvia Maria Mihaila, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Alberto Ortiz, and Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño

Published: September 2022


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is projected to become the fifth global cause of death by 2040 as a result of key shortcomings in the current methods available to diagnose and treat kidney diseases. In this regard, the novel holobiont concept, used to describe an individual host and its microbial community, may pave the way towards a better understanding of kidney disease pathogenesis and progression. Microbiota-modulating or -derived interventions include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics and postbiotics. As of 2019, the concept of postbiotics was updated by the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) to refer to preparations of inanimate microorganisms and/or their components that confer a health benefit to the host. By explicitly excluding purified metabolites without a cellular biomass, any literature making use of such term is potentially rendered obsolete. We now review the revised concept of postbiotics concerning their potential clinical applications and research in kidney disease, by discussing in detail several formulations that are undergoing preclinical development such as GABA-salt for diet-induced hypertension and kidney injury, sonicated Lactobacillus paracasei in high fat diet-induced kidney injury, GABA-salt, lacto-GABA-salt and postbiotic-GABA-salt in acute kidney injury, and O. formigenes lysates for hyperoxaluria. Furthermore, we provide a roadmap for postbiotics research in kidney disease to expedite clinical translation.

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