Plasma Methylglyoxal Levels Are Associated With Amputations and Mortality in Severe Limb Ischemia Patients With and Without Diabetes
Published: 1 January 2021
Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for severe limb ischemia (SLI), a condition associated with high mortality, morbidity, and limb loss. The reactive glucose-derived dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MGO) is a major precursor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and a potential driver of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether plasma MGO levels are associated with poor outcomes in SLI.
Research design and methods: We measured plasma levels of MGO, free AGEs, and d-lactate, the detoxification end product of MGO, with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline in 160 patients (64.8 ± 13.3 years, 67.5% male, 37.5% with diabetes) with no-option SLI and recorded major adverse outcomes (n = 86, comprising n = 53 deaths and n = 49 amputations [first event counted]) over the 5-year follow-up. Data were analyzed with linear or Cox regression, after Ln-transformation of the independent variables, adjusted for sex, age, trial arm, diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and BMI. Associations are reported per 1 SD plasma marker.
Results: Higher plasma MGO levels were associated with more adverse outcomes (relative risk 1.44; 95% CI 1.11-1.86) and amputations separately (1.55; 1.13-2.21). We observed a similar but weaker trend for mortality (1.28; 0.93-1.77). The MGO-derived AGE Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine was also associated with more adverse outcomes (1.46; 1.00-2.15) and amputations (1.71; 1.04-2.79). d-Lactate was not associated with adverse incident outcomes. Higher plasma MGO levels were also associated with more inflammation and white blood cells and fewer progenitor cells.
Conclusions: Plasma MGO levels are associated with adverse outcomes in SLI. Future studies should investigate whether MGO-targeting therapies improve outcomes in SLI.
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