Microphysiological Systems to Recapitulate the Gut–Kidney Axis
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) typically appears alongside other comorbidities, highlighting an underlying complex pathophysiology that is thought to be vastly modulated by the bidirectional gut–kidney crosstalk. By combining advances in tissue engineering, biofabrication, microfluidics, and biosensors, microphysiological systems (MPSs) have emerged as promising approaches for emulating the in vitro interconnection of multiple organs, while addressing the limitations of animal models. Mimicking the (patho)physiological states of the gut–kidney axis in vitro requires an MPS that can simulate not only this direct bidirectional crosstalk but also the contributions of other physiological participants such as the liver and the immune system. We discuss recent developments in the field that could potentially lead to in vitro modeling of the gut–kidney axis in CKD.
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