Integrating artificial intelligence in pathology: a qualitative interview study of users’ experiences and expectations
Recent progress in the development of artificial intelligence (AI) has sparked enthusiasm for its potential use in pathology. As pathology labs are currently starting to shift their focus towards AI implementation, a better understanding how AI tools can be optimally aligned with the medical and social context of pathology daily practice is urgently needed. Strikingly, studies often fail to mention the ways in which AI tools should be integrated in the decision-making processes of pathologists, nor do they address how this can be achieved in an ethically sound way. Moreover, the perspectives of pathologists and other professionals within pathology concerning the integration of AI within pathology remains an underreported topic. This article aims to fill this gap in the literature and presents the first in-depth interview study in which professionals’ perspectives on the possibilities, conditions and prerequisites of AI integration in pathology are explicated. The results of this study have led to the formulation of three concrete recommendations to support AI integration, namely: (1) foster a pragmatic attitude toward AI development, (2) provide task-sensitive information and training to health care professionals working in pathology departments and (3) take time to reflect upon users’ changing roles and responsibilities.
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