Published: March 2021
In vitro cardiac modeling has taken great strides in the past decade. While most cell and engineered tissue models have focused on cell and tissue contractile function as readouts, mechanobiological cues from the cell environment that affect this function, such as matrix stiffness or organization, are less well explored. In this study, we review two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models of cardiac function that allow for systematic manipulation or precise control of mechanobiological cues under simulated (patho)physiological conditions while acquiring multiple readouts of cell and tissue function. We summarize the cell types used in these models and highlight the importance of linking 2D and 3D models to address the multiscale organization and mechanical behavior. Finally, we provide directions on how to advance in vitro modeling for cardiac mechanobiology using next generation hydrogels that mimic mechanical and structural environmental features at different length scales and diseased cell types, along with the development of new tissue fabrication and readout techniques.
Full Access Link: Tissue Engineering - Part C: Methods