Immuno-regenerative biomaterials for in situ cardiovascular tissue engineering – Do patient characteristics warrant precision engineering?

B J de Kort, S E Koch, T B Wissing, M M Krebber, C V C Bouten, A I P M Smits

Published: November 2021


In situ tissue engineering using bioresorbable material implants – or scaffolds – that harness the patient’s immune response while guiding neotissue formation at the site of implantation is emerging as a novel therapy to regenerate human tissues. For the cardiovascular system, the use of such implants, like blood vessels and heart valves, is gradually entering the stage of clinical translation. This opens up the question if and to what extent patient characteristics influence tissue outcomes, necessitating the precision engineering of scaffolds to guide patient-specific neo-tissue formation. Because of the current scarcity of human in vivo data, herein we review and evaluate in vitro and preclinical investigations to predict the potential role of patient-specific parameters like sex, age, ethnicity, hemodynamics, and a multifactorial disease profile, with special emphasis on their contribution to the inflammation-driven processes of in situ tissue engineering. We conclude that patient-specific conditions have a strong impact on key aspects of in situ cardiovascular tissue engineering, including inflammation, hemodynamic conditions, scaffold resorption, and tissue remodeling capacity, suggesting that a tailored approach may be required to engineer immuno-regenerative biomaterials for safe and predictive clinical applicabilit

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