Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of death worldwide. The most common conditions that lead to HF are coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, valve disorders, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy. Due to the limited regenerative capacity of the heart, the only curative therapy currently available is heart transplantation. Therefore, there is a great need for the development of novel regenerative strategies to repair the injured myocardium, replace damaged valves, and treat occluded coronary arteries. Recent advances in manufacturing technologies have resulted in the precise fabrication of 3D fiber scaffolds with high architectural control that can support and guide new tissue growth, opening exciting new avenues for repair of the human heart. This review discusses the recent advancements in the novel research field of fiber patterning manufacturing technologies for cardiac tissue engineering (cTE) and to what extent these technologies could meet the requirements of the highly organized and structured cardiac tissues. Additionally, future directions of these novel fiber patterning technologies, designs, and applicability to advance cTE are presented.
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