Published: 1 June 2021
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been described as important mediators of cell communication, regulating several physiological processes, including tissue recovery and regeneration. In the kidneys, EVs derived from stem cells have been shown to support tissue recovery in diverse disease models and have been considered an interesting alternative to cell therapy. For this purpose, however, several challenges remain to be overcome, such as the requirement of a high number of EVs for human therapy and the need for optimization of techniques for their isolation and characterization. Moreover, the kidney’s complexity and the pathological process to be treated require that EVs present a heterogeneous group of molecules to be delivered. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the use of EVs as a therapeutic tool for kidney diseases. Moreover, we give an overview of the new technologies applied to improve EVs’ efficacy, such as novel methods of EV production and isolation by means of bioreactors and microfluidics, bioengineering the EV content and the use of alternative cell sources, including kidney organoids, to support their transfer to clinical applications.
Full Access Link: International Journal of Molecular Sciences