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End-stage kidney disease in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease; incidence and risk factors: results from the UCC-SMART cohort study

Helena Bleken Østergaard, Jan Westerink, Marianne C. Verhaar, Michiel L. Bots, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Gert J. de Borst, L. Jaap Kappelle, Frank L. J. Visseren, Joep van der Leeuw on behalf of the UCC-SMART studygroup

Published: 2021

Abstract

Background

Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at increased risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Insights into the incidence and role of modifiable risk factors for end-stage kidney disease may provide means for prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Methods

We included 8402 patients with stable cardiovascular disease. Incidence rates (IRs) for end-stage kidney disease were determined stratified according to vascular disease location. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the risk of end-stage kidney disease for the different determinants.

Results

Sixty-five events were observed with a median follow-up of 8.6 years. The overall incidence rate of end-stage kidney disease was 0.9/1000 person-years. Patients with polyvascular disease had the highest incidence rate (1.8/1000 person-years). Smoking (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.87; 95% CI 1.10–3.19), type 2 diabetes (HR 1.81; 95% CI 1.05–3.14), higher systolic blood pressure (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.24–1.52/10 mmHg), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (HR 2.86; 95% CI 2.44–3.23/10 mL/min/1.73 m2) and higher urine albumin/creatinine ratio (uACR) (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.15–1.23/10 mg/mmol) were independently associated with elevated risk of end-stage kidney disease. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, non-HDL-cholesterol and exercise were not independently associated with risk of end-stage kidney disease.

Conclusions

Incidence of end-stage kidney disease in patients with cardiovascular disease varies according to vascular disease location. Several modifiable risk factors for end-stage kidney disease were identified in patients with cardiovascular disease. These findings highlight the potential of risk factor management in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease.

Full Access Link: Journal of Nephrology