This study showed that bone marrow mononuclear cell pre-seeding had detrimental effects on functionality and in situ remodeling of bioresorbable bisurea-modified polycarbonate (PC-BU)-based tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) used as transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement in sheep. We also showed heterogeneous valve and leaflet remodeling, which affects PC-BU TEHV safety, challenging their potential for clinical translation. We suggest that bone marrow mononuclear cell pre-seeding should not be used in combination with PC-BU TEHVs. A better understanding of cell–scaffold interaction and in situ remodeling processes is needed to improve transcatheter valve design and polymer absorption rates for a safe and clinically relevant translation of this approach.
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