Breaking the resolution limits of 3D bioprinting: future opportunities and present challenges

Tommaso Zandrini, Sammy Florczak, Riccardo Levato, Aleksandr Ovsianikov

Published: 2022


Bioprinting aims to produce 3D structures from which embedded cells can receive mechanical and chemical stimuli that influence their behavior, direct their organization and migration, and promote differentiation, in a similar way to what happens within the native extracellular matrix. However, limited spatial resolution has been a bottleneck for conventional 3D bioprinting approaches. Reproducing fine features at the cellular scale, while maintaining a reasonable printing volume, is necessary to enable the biofabrication of more complex and functional tissue and organ models. In this opinion article we recount the emergence of, and discuss the most promising, high-definition (HD) bioprinting techniques to achieve this goal, discussing which obstacles remain to be overcome, and which applications are envisioned in the tissue engineering field.

Full Access Link: Trends in Biotechnology