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Association of mild kidney dysfunction with diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Robin W. M. Vernooij, Anne-Mar L. N. van Ommen, Gideon B. Valstar, Maarten Jan Cramer, Arco J. Teske, Roxana Menken, Leo Hofstra, Frans H. Rutten, Michiel L. Bots, Hester M. den Ruijter, Marianne C. Verhaar

Published: 2023

Aims: We aim to investigate the association between kidney dysfunction and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction parameters and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and whether this is sex-specific.

Methods and results: We included participants from the HELPFul observational study. Outpatient clinical care data, including echocardiography, and an expert panel judgement on HFpEF was collected. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by creatinine and cystatin C without race. The association between eGFR with E/e’, left ventricular mass index, relative wall thickness, and stage C/D heart failure was tested by multivariable adjusted regression models, stratified by sex, reporting odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% confidence interval). We analysed 880 participants, mean age 62.9 (standard deviation: 9.3) years, 69% female. Four hundred six participants had mild (37.6%) kidney dysfunction (eGFR: 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) or moderate (8.5%) kidney dysfunction (eGFR: 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2 ). HFpEF was significantly more prevalent in participants with mild and moderate kidney dysfunction (10.3% and 16.0%, respectively) than participants with normal kidney function (3.4%). A lower kidney function was associated with higher E/e’ and higher relative wall thickness values. Participants with moderate kidney dysfunction had a higher likelihood of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association stage C/D HF (odds ratio: 2.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.49) than participants with normal kidney functions.

Conclusions: Both mild and moderate kidney dysfunction are independently associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction parameters and HFpEF. This association is independent of sex and strongest for moderate kidney dysfunction. Considering mild-to-moderate kidney dysfunction as risk factor for HFpEF may help identify high-risk groups benefiting most from early intervention.

Full Access Link: ESC Heart Failure