Exercise training benefits the heart. The knowledge of post-transcription regulation, especially RNA editing, in hearts remain rare. ADAR2 is an enzyme that edits adenosine to inosine nucleotides in double-stranded RNA, and RNA editing is associated with many human diseases. We found that ADAR2 was upregulated in hearts during exercise training. AAV9-mediated cardiac-specific ADAR2 overexpression attenuated acute myocardial infarction (AMI), MI remodeling, and doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. In vitro, overexpression of ADAR2 inhibited DOX-induced cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis. but it could also induce neonatal rat CM proliferation. Mechanistically, ADAR2 could regulate the abundance of mature miR-34a in CMs. Regulations of miR-34a or its target genes (Sirt1, Cyclin D1, and Bcl2) could affect the pro-proliferation and anti-apoptosis effects of ADAR2 on CMs. These data demonstrated that exercise-induced ADAR2 protects the heart from MI and DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Our work suggests that ADAR2 overexpression or a post-transcriptional associated RNA editing via ADAR2 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for heart diseases.
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