A Ninhydrin-Type Urea Sorbent for the Development of a Wearable Artificial Kidney

Jacobus A. W. Jong Yong Guo Diënty Hazenbrink Stefania Douka Dennis Verdijk Johan van der Zwan Klaartje Houben Marc Baldus Karina C. Scheiner Remco Dalebout Marianne C. Verhaar Robert Smakman Wim E. Hennink Karin G.F. Gerritsen Cornelus F. van Nostrum

Published: 01/03/2020


The aim of this study is to develop polymeric chemisorbents with a high density of ninhydrin groups, able to covalently bind urea under physiological conditions and thus potentially suitable for use in a wearable artificial kidney. Macroporous beads are prepared by suspension polymerization of 5-vinyl-1-indanone (vinylindanone) using a 90:10 (v/v) mixture of toluene and nitrobenzene as a porogen. The indanone groups are subsequently oxidized in a one-step procedure into ninhydrin groups. Their urea absorption kinetics are evaluated under both static and dynamic conditions at 37 °C in simulated dialysate (urea in phosphate buffered saline). Under static conditions and at a 1:1 molar ratio of ninhydrin: urea the sorbent beads remove ≈0.6-0.7 mmol g-1 and under dynamic conditions and at a 2:1 molar excess of ninhydrin ≈0.6 mmol urea g-1 sorbent in 8 h at 37 °C, which is a step toward a wearable artificial kidney.

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