The aim of this work is to develop and enhance electrospun scaffolds for an in vitro model of the nephron, using iPSCs and adult stem cells-derived vascular organoids. Furthermore, new 3D printing techniques will be developed to allow guided fractal branching of macro vessels to recreate the connections to the capillary bed of the natural vascular tree. The ultimate goal is to repair human kidney and bloodvessels ex vivo, by combining state-of-the-art bio-fabrication techniques with tissue culture using patient derived cells, for replacement of damaged organs. This technology would be most valuable to those patients who follow dialysis treatment while they’re waiting for a donor kidney. Extracorporeal functional kidney cells would enable the clearance of uremic toxins that are not sufficiently removed through dialysis, and therefore have a major impact on patient survival and quality of life.